In this topic, we will discuss the types of organizational conflicts and how an international business concern manages its internal conflicts.
Types of Conflicts
Conflicts in an organization can arise due to multiple reasons, based on which they can be categorized into different types.
On the basis of involvement
Conflicts may be personal (intrapersonal and interpersonal) and organizational. Organizational conflicts can be intra-organizational and inter-organizational. Inter-organizational conflicts occur between two or more organizations. Intra-organizational conflicts can be further divided into intergroup and intragroup conflict.
On the basis of scope
Conflicts may be substantive and affective. An affective conflict deals with interpersonal aspects. Substantive conflict is also called performance, task, issue, or active conflict. Procedural conflicts can include disagreements about the process of doing a job.
On the basis of results
Conflicts can be constructive or destructive, creative or restricting, and positive or negative. Constructive conflicts are also known as functional conflicts, because they support the group goals and help in improving performance. Destructive conflicts are also known as dysfunctional conflicts, they prevent people from reaching their goals. Destructive conflicts take the attention away from other important activities, and involve negative behaviour and results, such as name-calling.
On the basis of sharing by groups
Conflicts may be distributive and integrative. Distributive conflict is approached as a distribution of a fixed amount of positive outcomes or resources. In an Integrative conflict, groups see the conflict as a chance to integrate the needs and concerns of both groups. It has a greater emphasis on compromise.
On the basis of Strategy
Conflicts may be competitive and cooperative. Competitive conflict is accumulative. The original issue that began the conflict becomes irrelevant. Costs do not matter in competitive conflict. A cooperative conflict is of interest-based or integrative bargaining mode; it leads the parties involved to find a win-win solution.
On the basis of rights and interests
If some people are granted certain rights by law, contract, agreement, or established practice and when that right is denied, it leads to a conflict. These conflicts are settled by law or arbitration. In conflict of interests, a person or group may demand some privileges, no law or right being existent. Negotiation or collective bargaining solves this type of conflict.