Managerial Economics – Overview

Managerial Economics can be defined as amalgamation of economic theory with business practices so as to ease decision-making and future planning by management. Managerial Economics assists the managers of a firm in a rational solution of obstacles faced in the firm’s activities. It makes use of economic theory and concepts. It helps in formulating logical managerial decisions. The key of Managerial Economics is the micro-economic theory of the firm. It lessens the gap between economics in theory and economics in practice. Managerial Economics is a science dealing with effective use of scarce resources. It guides the managers in taking decisions relating to the firm’s customers, competitors, suppliers as well as relating to the internal functioning of a firm. It makes use of statistical and analytical tools to assess economic theories in solving practical business problems.

Study of Managerial Economics helps in enhancement of analytical skills, assists in rational configuration as well as solution of problems. While microeconomics is the study of decisions made regarding the allocation of resources and prices of goods and services, macroeconomics is the field of economics that studies the behavior of the economy as a whole (i.e. entire industries and economies). Managerial Economics applies micro-economic tools to make business decisions. It deals with a firm.

The use of Managerial Economics is not limited to profit-making firms and organizations. But it can also be used to help in decision-making process of non-profit organizations (hospitals, educational institutions, etc). It enables optimum utilization of scarce resources in such organizations as well as helps in achieving the goals in most efficient manner. Managerial Economics is of great help in price analysis, production analysis, capital budgeting, risk analysis and determination of demand.

Managerial economics uses both Economic theory as well as Econometrics for rational managerial decision making. Econometrics is defined as use of statistical tools for assessing economic theories by empirically measuring relationship between economic variables. It uses factual data for solution of economic problems. Managerial Economics is associated with the economic theory which constitutes “Theory of Firm”. Theory of firm states that the primary aim of the firm is to maximize wealth. Decision making in managerial economics generally involves establishment of firm’s objectives, identification of problems involved in achievement of those objectives, development of various alternative solutions, selection of best alternative and finally implementation of the decision.

The following figure tells the primary ways in which Managerial Economics correlates to managerial decision-making.

Micro, Macro, and Managerial Economics Relationship

Microeconomics studies the actions of individual consumers and firms; managerial economics is an applied specialty of this branch. Macroeconomics deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of an economy as a whole. Managerial economics applies microeconomic theories and techniques to management decisions. It is more limited in scope as compared to microeconomics. Macroeconomists study aggregate indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates to understand the functions of the whole economy.

Microeconomics and managerial economics both encourage the use of quantitative methods to analyze economic data. Businesses have finite human and financial resources; managerial economic principles can aid management decisions in allocating these resources efficiently. Macroeconomics models and their estimates are used by the government to assist in the development of economic policy.

Nature and Scope of Managerial Economics

The most important function in managerial economics is decision-making. It involves the complete course of selecting the most suitable action from two or more alternatives. The primary function is to make the most profitable use of resources which are limited such as labor, capital, land etc. A manager is very careful while taking decisions as the future is uncertain; he ensures that the best possible plans are made in the most effective manner to achieve the desired objective which is profit maximization.

●      Economic theory and economic analysis are used to solve the problems of managerial economics.

●      Economics basically comprises of two main divisions namely Micro economics and Macro economics.

●      Managerial economics covers both macroeconomics as well as microeconomics, as both are equally important for decision making and business analysis.

●      Macroeconomics deals with the study of entire economy. It considers all the factors such as government policies, business cycles, national income, etc.

●      Microeconomics includes the analysis of small individual units of economy such as individual firms, individual industry, or a single individual consumer.

All the economic theories, tools, and concepts are covered under the scope of managerial economics to analyze the business environment. The scope of managerial economics is a continual process, as it is a developing science. Demand analysis and forecasting, profit management, and capital management are also considered under the scope of managerial economics.

Demand Analysis and Forecasting

Demand analysis and forecasting involves huge amount of decision-making! Demand estimation is an integral part of decision making, an assessment of future sales helps in strengthening the market position and maximizing profit. In managerial economics, demand analysis and forecasting holds a very important place.

Profit Management

Success of a firm depends on its primary measure and that is profit. Firms are operated to earn long term profit which is generally the reward for risk taking. Appropriate planning and measuring profit is the most important and challenging area of managerial economics.

Capital Management

Capital management involves planning and controlling of expenses. There are many problems related to capital investments which involve considerable amount of time and labor. Cost of capital and rate of return are important factors of capital management.

Demand for Managerial Economics

The demand for this subject has increased post liberalization and globalization period primarily because of increasing use of economic logic, concepts, tools and theories in the decision making process of large multinationals.

Also, this can be attributed to increasing demand for professionally trained management personnel, who can leverage limited resources available to them and maximize returns with efficiency and effectiveness.

Role in Managerial Decision Making

Managerial economics leverages economic concepts and decision science techniques to solve managerial problems. It provides optimal solutions to managerial decision making issues.

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