Pricing is a crucial part of the marketing mix for international firms. Pricing techniques play a critical role when a company wants to penetrate into a market and expand its operations.
The most important factors that decide the prices are labelled the 4 C’s −
● Company (costs, company goals)
● Customers (price sensitivity, segments, consumer preferences)
● Competition (market structure and intensity of competition)
● Channels (of distribution)
Global firms face the following challenges while pricing their products and services to suit the requirements of international market −
● Export Price Escalation − Exporting includes more steps and higher risks than domestic sale. To make up for shipping, insurance and tariffs, and foreign retail prices, the export price may be much higher than domestic country. It is important to know whether external customers are willing to pay an additional price for the products/services and whether the pricing will be competitive in that market. If both answers are negative, then there are two approaches. One is to find a way to decrease the export price, and the second is to position the product as an exclusive or premium brand.
● Inflation − Intense and uncontrolled inflation can be a huge obstacle for MNCs. If inflation rates are rampant, setting prices and controlling costs require full dedication of marketing and financial divisions. Some alternatives to counter inflation include changing the components of products or their packaging, procuring raw materials from low-cost suppliers and shortening credit terms, etc.
● Currency Movements − Exchange rates being unstable, setting a price strategy that can get rid of fluctuations gets difficult. Key considerations include what proportion of exchange rate gain or loss should be transferred to customers (the pass-through issue), and finding which currency price quotes are given in.
● Transfer Pricing − Transfer prices are the charges for transactions that involve trade of raw materials, components, finished products, or services. Transfer pricing include stakeholders, such as the company, local managers, host governments, domestic governments, and joint-venture partners. Tax regimes, local conditions, imperfections, joint venture partners and the morale of managers affect transfer pricing.
● Anti-dumping Regulations − Dumping occurs when imports are sold at an unfair and very low price. Recently countries have adopted anti-dumping laws to protect their local industries. Anti-dumping laws should be considered when deciding global prices.
● Price Coordination − Price coordination is the relationship between prices charged in different countries. It is an important consideration while deciding the global pricing model. Price coordination includes the following factors − Nature of customers, Product differentiation amount, Nature of distribution channels, Competition type, Market Integration, Internal organizational characteristics, and Government regulations.
● Countertrade − Countertrades are unconventional trade-financing transactions including non-cash compensation. A monetary valuation can however be used in countertrade for accounting purposes. In dealings between sovereign states, the term bilateral trade is generally used. Examples include clearing arrangements, buybacks, counter purchases, switch trading, and offsets.