There are seven major approaches for controlling a business organization. These are discussed below −
The market approach says that the external market forces shape the control mechanism and the behavior of the management within the organizational units of an MNC. Market approach is applied in any organization having a decentralized culture. In such organizations, transfer prices are negotiated openly and freely. The decision-making process in this approach is largely directed and governed by the market forces.
The rules approach applies to a rules-oriented organization where a greater part of decision-making is applied to strongly impose the organizational rules and procedures. It requires highly developed plan and budget systems with extensive formal reporting. Rules approach of control utilizes both the input and output controls in an organized and exclusively formalized manner.
In organizations that follow the corporate culture approach, the employees internalize the goals by building a strong set of values. This value-syndication influences the operational mechanism of the organization. It has been observed that even when some organizations have strong norms of behavioural controls, they are informal and less explicit. Corporate culture approach requires more time to bring the aimed changes or adjustments in an organization.
Reporting culture is a powerful control mechanism. It is used while allocating resources or while the top management wants to monitor the performance of the firm and the employees. Rewarding the personnel is a common practice in such approaches of control. However, to get the maximum out of reporting approach, the reports must be frequent, correct, and useful.
Visiting the subsidiaries is a common control approach. The disadvantage is that all the information cannot be exchanged via visits. Corporate staff usually and frequently visit subsidiaries to confer and socialize with the local management. Visits can enable the visitors to collect information about the firm which allows them to offer advice and directives.
Management performance Evaluation is used to evaluate the subsidiary managers for the subsidiary’s performance. However, as decision-making authority is different from the operational managers, some aspects of control cannot be managed via this approach. Slow growth rates of firms and risky economical and political environment requires this kind of approach.
Cost and Accounting Comparisons is a financial approach. It arises due to the difference in expenditure among various units of the subsidiaries. A meaningful comparison of the operating performances of the units is necessary to get the full output from this approach. Cost accounting comparisons use a set of rules that are applicable to the home country principles to meet local reporting requirements.