The carriage of goods by land is governed by two laws — the Carriage by Road Act, 2007 and the Railways Act, 1890. According to the Carriage by Road Act, a common carrier can either be an individual, person or an organization, which carries out the trade of transportation over the land or inland waterways for the purpose of raising money.
● A private carrier is defined as an entity which carries its own goods or the goods of selected persons.
● Private carriers are governed by the Indian Contract Act rather than the Carriage by Road Act, 2007.
● The Carriage by Road Act, 2007 was passed to revise the then obsolete Carriers Act, 1865.
● The act deals with the regulation of common carriers, limiting their liability and declaration of value of goods delivered to them to determine their liability for loss or damage to such goods due to the negligence or criminal acts carried out by themselves, their servants or agents.
● Except Jammu and Kashmir, the act applies to the whole of India.